Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Conflict and Perspective Reading Guide: Home

What is Research?

Research Process and Citations

Creating Citations or Works Cited Page?

  1. If you are using any of the databases offered at ISB, you can copy the citation from the database (remember we use MLA 8 at ISB). 
  2. You can create your own citations with NoodleTools. You can log into NoodleTools and create an account with your ISB Student Email.  
  3. You can also create a citation with NoodleTools Express (Below) and use the DataCatcher to collect your source information.

Works Cited: A Quick Guide

MLA Handbook. 8th ed., New York, Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Guided Inquiry Process for Effective Researching

Open - Review Assignment. Introduction of the general topic to stimulate curiosity and engage inquiry.  Ideas, themes, questions, problems or concepts related to the subject.  (Prewrite)

Immerse - Connect with content and discover interesting ideas to explore further. What seems particularly interesting, curious, surprising or troubling?  Reflect on ideas that matter to you and are worth further investigation. (Prewrite)

Explore - Survey a wide variety of sources, read when you find something interesting, explore ideas. Browse and scan a variety of sources and prepare to develop your inquiry questions. (Skim and Scan) (Prewrite)

Identify - Students are ready to identify a question for their inquiry because of the time spent immersing and exploring in order to build enough background knowledge to ask a meaningful question. Construct an inquiry question from the ideas, pressing problems, and emerging themes you have explored in various sources of information. Form a focus and draft a question.

Gather - A question gives direction to collect detailed information from a variety of sources. Locate, evaluate, and use information. "Go broad" to find a range of sources that are useful and "dig deep" and choose a core of the most useful sources to read closely as you find connections and gain personal understanding. (Close Reading) (Prewrite)

Create - By this stage, you have gathered enough information to construct your own understanding, you are now ready to organize your learning. What is important about the subject? Construct your own understanding, summarize, interpret, and extend meaning.  Integrate your own ideas more firmly into deep understanding. (Close Reading) (Write and Revise)

Share - Students share the product they have created to show what they have learned. (Publish)


Evaluate - This occurs at the end when evaluation of the achievement of your learning goals takes place. Students reflect on their content learning and progress through the inquiry process. Self-reflection reinforces content learning and establishes good habits for learning how to learn through the inquiry process.

Guided Inquiry Design® Framework. 2020, Accessed 22 Oct. 2020.


Key Terms and Definitions

Bias: Bias is the opinion, preference, inclination, perspective, or slant that informs actions and/or text. Bias can be positive or negative. This definition differs from a common usage in which bias has only negative connotations such as prejudice, unreasoned justification, distorted interpretation, and unfair influence. To deal with text knowledgeably, the reader must interpret it from competing perspectives, and determine whether bias is positive or negative.

Stereotypes: A false or generalized conception of a group of people which results in the unconscious or conscious categorization of each member of that group, without regard for individual differences. Stereotyping may be based on misconceptions and false generalizations about racial, age, ethnic, linguistic, religious, geographical, or national groups; social, marital, or family status; disability, gender, or sexual orientation. Stereotypes are often developed with little thought and they can lead to high levels of resentment. Stereotypes lead to inequities of all kinds: employment, housing, social acceptance, and all forms of exclusion.

Prejudice: Is a set of opinions about or attitudes toward a certain group, or individuals within it, that cast that group and its members in an inferior light and for which there is no legitimate basis in fact. It can be a consequence and a cause of discrimination. The term is derived from the word “prejudge.” Prejudicial attitudes are very resistant to change because concrete evidence that contradicts the prejudiced view tends to be dismissed as “the exception to the rule.” Discrimination The differential allocation of goods, resources, and services, and the limitation of access to full participation in society based on individual membership in a particular social group.

A Teaching Resource for Dealing with Controversial and Sensitive Issues in TDSB Classrooms, TDSB, 2003; and Challenging Class Bias, TDSB, 2005.



Ideas for Getting Started

Assignment Link:

Click Here to Make your Research eNotes for any assignment

Thoughts for getting started:

Seek out the perspective of individuals or organizations with strong opinions.  Those stakeholders and how they view the controversy will lend added depth to your approach on the topic.  When identifying who those people or organizations are with an interest or a concern on a topic, consider this:

  • Who cares about this topic?
  • Is there a professional organization for those people? A governmental agency? An interest group?
  • Do they have a publication, webpage, blog, listserv, or other means of communicating and sharing information?

 Once you've identified those groups with the different perspectives, begin seeking out who they are and where they might be discussing the controversial topic you've selected.

Places to get ideas for starting:

25 Controversial Topics: Position Paper Guide:

CAL State: Controversial Topics:

Suggested Databases

Suggested Databases provided by ISB Main Library


  Provider of research of databases, journals, magazine subscriptions, and ebooks.



  Offers full-text, academic content on a variety of subjects 


  Academic journals, and over one million images, letters, and primary sources.


Issues & Controversies (Infobase)

Explore hundreds of hot topics in politics, government, business, society, education, and popular culture in a balanced, pro/con format.



  A database that specializes in news resources, including archived and up to date news stories.


  Create an account and read news stories that are leveled by Lexile



Sites for unique research and data