Open - Review Assignment. Introduction of the general topic to stimulate curiosity and engage inquiry. Ideas, themes, questions, problems or concepts related to the subject. (Prewrite)
Immerse - Connect with content and discover interesting ideas to explore further. What seems particularly interesting, curious, surprising or troubling? Reflect on ideas that matter to you and are worth further investigation. (Prewrite)
Explore - Survey a wide variety of sources, read when you find something interesting, explore ideas. Browse and scan a variety of sources and prepare to develop your inquiry questions. (Skim and Scan) (Prewrite)
Identify - Students are ready to identify a question for their inquiry because of the time spent immersing and exploring in order to build enough background knowledge to ask a meaningful question. Construct an inquiry question from the ideas, pressing problems, and emerging themes you have explored in various sources of information. Form a focus and draft a question.
Gather - A question gives direction to collect detailed information from a variety of sources. Locate, evaluate, and use information. "Go broad" to find a range of sources that are useful and "dig deep" and choose a core of the most useful sources to read closely as you find connections and gain personal understanding. (Close Reading) (Prewrite)
Create - By this stage, you have gathered enough information to construct your own understanding, you are now ready to organize your learning. What is important about the subject? Construct your own understanding, summarize, interpret, and extend meaning. Integrate your own ideas more firmly into deep understanding. (Close Reading) (Write and Revise)
Share - Students share the product they have created to show what they have learned. (Publish)
Evaluate - This occurs at the end when evaluation of the achievement of your learning goals takes place. Students reflect on their content learning and progress through the inquiry process. Self-reflection reinforces content learning and establishes good habits for learning how to learn through the inquiry process.
Guided Inquiry Design® Framework. 2020, guidedinquirydesign.com/gid/. Accessed 22 Oct. 2020.
MLA Handbook. 8th ed., New York, Modern Language Association of America, 2016.
OPVL is an effective tool to analyze primary and secondary source documents.
Origin is where the source comes from.
Purpose is where you have to put yourself in the author or artist's shoes. The purpose should relate to the origin of the source.
Value is how valuable this source is. Basically it's linked to the amount of bias in the source: the more bias = the less valuable (usually). Primary sources are obviously more valuable than secondary/tertiary ones.
Limitations is also linked to bias, each source will be at least a little biased and thus they are limited by that. Do not state bias alone as a limitation. All sources have bias.
“LibGuides: Environmental Systems & Societies: Evaluate Sources (OPVL & 5 Ws).” Libguides.Com, 2019, concordian-thailand.libguides.com/c.php?g=567265&p=3976513. Accessed 3 Nov. 2020.
What are they? Scholarly or peer-reviewed journal articles are written by scholars or professionals who are experts in their fields. Popular sources aim to inform a wide audience about issues of interest and are much more informal in tone and scope.
Why do we care? Evidence. You want to base your writing and arguments on the best available evidence. While both types of sources contain credible information, scholarly articles (usually) provide the best evidence for the authors' claims (through high-quality citations and the peer-review process).
|research projects, methodology, and theory||Contents||personalities, news, and general interest articles|
|subject experts||Authors||journalists and generalists|
|academic institutions||Affiliation||staff or freelance writers|
|highly focused, geared towards researchers and professionals||Topics||more generalized, geared towards nonprofessionals|
|peer-reviewed (usually)||Review Process||edited but not peer-reviewed|
|many have dull covers||Appearance||glossy, eye-catching covers|
|few or none||Advertisements||many|
|Journal of Food Science, Urban Studies, Journal of Applied Psychology, Annals of Human Genetics||Examples||People, New York Times, Psychology Today, Time|
*Types of Periodicals - Periodical is a generic term used for magazines and scholarly journals. They are materials that are published at regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, daily, etc.).
“LibGuides: Long Descriptions of Images in Guides: Home.” Libguides.Com, 2010, iupui.libguides.com/c.php?g=463889&p=3171106#s-lg-box-wrapper-11533422. Accessed 3 Nov. 2020.
Primary Sources: Original documents created or experienced contemporaneously with the event being researched. They are first-hand observations, contemporary accounts of events, viewpoints of the time. They present original thinking, report a discovery, or share new information.
Secondary Sources: Works that analyze, assess, or interpret an historical event, era or phenomenon, generally utilizing primary sources to do so. They provide interpretation of information, usually written well after the event. They offer reviews or critiques.
|Primary Sources||Secondary Sources|
|Journal articles detailing original research||Books (except fiction & autobiographies)|
|Newspaper articles written at the time||Histories|
|Oral & video recordings||Journal articles (depending on the discipline these can be primary)|
|Original documents (e.g., birth certificate, trial transcripts)||Literature Reviews|
|Photgraphs||Magazine and Newspaper Articles (this distinction varies by discipline)|
|Records of organizations, government agencies (e.g., annual report, treaty, constitution)|
|Survey Research (e.g., market surveys, public opinion polls)|
|Works of art, architecture, literature, and music)|
|Data, Statistics, etc.|